Standard 1i Preknowledge
1i) Students know how chemiosmotic gradients in the mitochondria and chloroplast store energy for ATP production.
CALIFORNIA FRAMEWORKS SUMMARY:
Enzymes called ATP synthase, located within the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts and cristae membranes in mitochondria, synthesize most ATP within cells. The thylakoid and cristae membranes are impermeable to protons except at pores that are coupled with the ATP synthase. The potential energy of the proton concentration gradient drives ATP synthesis as the protons move through the ATP synthase pores. The proton gradient is established by energy furnished by a flow of electrons passing through the electron transport system located within these membranes.