Standard 3c Preknowledge
3c) Students know chemical bonds between atoms in molecules such as H2, CH4, NH3, H2CCH2, N2, Cl2, and many large biological molecules are covalent.
CALIFORNIA FRAMEWORKS SUMMARY: Organic and biological molecules consist primarily of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. These elements share valence electrons to form bonds so that the outer electron energy levels of each atom are filled and have electron configurations like those of the nearest noble gas element. (Noble gases, or inert gases, are in the last column on the right of the periodic table.) For example, nitrogen has one lone pair and three unpaired electrons and therefore can form covalent bonds with three hydrogen atoms to make four electron pairs around the nitrogen. Carbon has four unpaired electrons and combines with hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen to form covalent bonds sharing electron pairs.
The great variety of combinations of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen make it possible, through covalent bond formation, to have many compounds from just these few elements. Teachers can use ball and stick or gumdrop and toothpick models to explore possible bonding combinations.