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California Standards Chemistry


Standard 3e Preknowledge

3e) Students know the atoms and molecules in liquids move in a random pattern relative to one another because the intermolecular forces are too weak to hold the atoms or molecules in a solid form.

CALIFORNIA FRAMEWORKS SUMMARY: In any substance at any temperature, the forces holding the material together are opposed by the internal energy of particle motion, which tends to break the substance apart. In a solid, internal agitation is insufficient to overcome intermolecular or interatomic forces. When enough energy is added to the solid, the kinetic energy of the atoms and molecules increases sufficiently to overcome the attractive forces between the particles, and they break free of their fixed lattice positions. This change, called melting, forms a liquid, which is disordered and nonrigid. The particles in the liquid are free to move about randomly although they remain in contact with each other.